PSM Veterinary Research <p style="text-align: justify;">PSM Veterinary&nbsp;Research (ISSN: 2518-2714) is a peer-reviewed, open access, multidisciplinary,&nbsp; international journal that publishes research on all aspects of veterinary&nbsp;and animal sciences.</p> PSM en-US PSM Veterinary Research 2518-2714 Comparative In-vitro Efficacy of Different Acaricides for Controlling Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) of Veterinary and Public Health Importance <p style="text-align: justify;">Ticks are hematophagous ectoparasites parasitizing farm animals causing great economic losses worldwide, they can also transmit several zoonotic diseases to humans. Tick infestation is a big problem faced by livestock breeders especially the smallholders in Egypt. The efficacy of six commercial acaricides; Cyfluthrin, Deltamethrin, Lambodcyhalothrin, Esbiothrin, Chlorpyrifos, and Malathion were tested in-vitro for controlling the most prevalent tick species in Egypt namely; <em>Boophilus annulatus, Hyalomma dromedarii,</em> and <em>Ripicephalus sanguineus</em>. Ticks were collected from cattle, camels, and dogs, and tested with the targeted acaricides through the larval packet test (LPT) and the disposable pipette method using the recommended concentration and dose by the manufacturer. Resistance level against acaricides was categorized as I, II, III and IV, based on the resistance factor calculated from probit analysis of the obtained data. Cyfluthrin was the most efficacious acaricide against adult and larval stages of all tick species, however, the other five acaricides showed level II of resistance for the larval stage, and level III of resistance for adult ticks (P≤ 0.05). All the used acaricides used showed a better effect on the larval stages than on the adult ticks, and generally the effect was higher with longer exposure time (P≤ 0.05). The obtained data in this study proved the excellent efficacy of Cyfluthrin as an acaricide and pay the attention for its use by the governmental authorities and the veterinarians in their clinics to control <em>Boophilus annulatus, Hyalomma dromedarii</em>, and <em>Ripicephalus sangueneus</em>, in cattle, camels and dogs in Egypt.</p> Amer Ragheb Abdulaziz Heba S El-Mahallawy Abdulaziz M Almuzaini Amal A Hassan Copyright (c) 2019 PSM 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 4 1 1 12 Ultrasonographic Measurements of Reproductive Organs of Male Goat during Non-breeding Season <p style="text-align: justify;">The aim of the present study was to visualize the testes and the accessory sex glands in male goat during non-breeding season with ultrasonography. A clinically healthy eight adult Egyptian male Baladi goats were used in a study to compare ultrasonographic measurements of reproductive organs. A scanning technique done in standing position using rectal probe for imaging scrotal contents and imaging pelvic accessory sex glands and the measurements were recorded. The mean scrotum circumference was 25.75 ± 0.55cm and the morphometric measurements of the right and left testis length were (9.50 ± 0.32cm and 9.75 ± 0.25cm respectively. Ultrasonographic imagings of testes were appeared as homogeneous with a coarse medium echo-pattern testicular parenchyma ranging from low to moderate echogenicity. The tail of the epididymis was appeared as globular, heterogeneous, less echogenic than testis with some white streaks in center. Ampulla appeared as hypo-echogenic to non-echogenic texture. Vesicular glands appeared as a heterogeneous hypo-echogenic structure. The pars disseminata of prostate gland was not well developed in bucks. Bulbourethral glands were easily identified in all bucks and appeared with variable echogenicity from hypo-echogenic to moderate echogenicity. It was concluded that ultrasonography provides a benefits in studying the changes in echogenicity and measurements of the testes and accessory sex glands of male goat and obtained data could provide a useful tool for predicting male goat fertility.</p> Hamed T Elbaz Emad M Abdel Razek Copyright (c) 2019 PSM 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 4 1 13 23 Sequential Pattern of Prenatal Ossification in the Fore Limb Bones in White New Zealand Rabbits by Double Stained Techniques and Computed Tomography <p style="text-align: justify;">The study was conducted to detect the sites of primary ossification centers and their sequence of appearance in the forelimb bones of white New Zealand rabbit’s fetuses (<em>Oryctolagus cuniculus</em>) by using double staining method and computed tomography. The results showed that the complete chondrification of the primitive bone of the forelimb scapula, humerus, radius and ulna, carpus, metacarpus and phalanx at 16<sup>th</sup> days postcoitum. The primary ossification centers of the forelimb firstly appeared in the diaphyses of radius and ulna, humerus and at two centers of scapula at 18<sup>th</sup> days, the ossification centers at metacarpus from I to III appeared at 22<sup>nd</sup> days, but in metacarpus of IV and V at 30<sup>th</sup> days postcoitum. The appearance of ungual phalanx at 22<sup>nd</sup> days postcoitum, but the ossification centers of the first three phalanges begin to appear at 30<sup>th</sup> postcoitum. By the end of 30<sup>th</sup> days, the ossification occurred at the most parts of scapula except the glenoid cavity, also the ossification of humerus, radius and ulna begin to appear at epiphysis. This study can provide useful baseline information on the normal sequential pattern of chondrification and ossification in the forelimb in rabbit’s fetuses by the computed tomography CT, and double stained technique.</p> Basma Mohamed Kamal Copyright (c) 2019 PSM 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 4 1 24 35 How to Improve Tick Control Programs <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Editorial</strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Ticks are forced blood sucker ectoparasites that feed on many different vertebrate hosts and constitute the most important group of vectors to animals and the second group to human. In Africa the control of ticks -and tick borne diseases (TBD)-&nbsp; is the most important economical problem from a sanitary point of view, even compared with trypanosomiasis or tsetse fly (Jongejan and Uilenberg, 2004). Indeed, climatic change is probably contributing to an increase of their populations either on field either on time.&nbsp; This expansion is probably backing to the re-emergency of some TBD.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Although there are efficient products against ticks, in some cases they are losing their effectiveness as a result of resistance development.&nbsp; Resistance is the ability of some parasites to tolerate toxic doses of a drug that would be lethal to most of their congeners. Actually, there are reports about tick resistance to formamidine, amitraz, permethrin or fipronil (Nolan 1994, Chen et al. 2007, Davey et al. 2008, Rosado Aguilar et al. 2008, Miller et al., 2007, Castro Janer et al. 2009). Even, Abbas et al. (2014) have reviewed the status of cattle reporting that there are resistant ticks to all the drug classes. It is important to alternate acaricides with different action mechanisms and to check periodically the efficacy of drugs to avoid resistances. In that context, the researchers and Pharmaceuticals companies are focused on finding acaricides through new molecules or natural products. Unfortunately, the development of new product is an expensive enterprise and the market price limited the use of new tools to companion animals of developed countries.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Some traditional measures could be useful for tick control; burning pastures to stimulate germination of the seeds is also effective against no parasitic stages of ticks (White and Gaff 2018); reduction of tick refuge by mowing weeds and grasses reduces the soil moisture and the lift litter (Clymer et al. 1970; Schulze et al. 1995); modulation of host availability, as it was done for the control of <em>Ixodes scapularis, </em>main vector of Lyme disease&nbsp; in USA, by the reduction of deer population access to restricted areas (Gray 1998).</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">One of the most important aspect on vector control is to stablish a strategy adapted to natural conditions and the species to manage. Nowadays, almost everybody know there are differences between <em>Anopheles</em> and Culicinae mosquitoes and the diseases they can transmit. Nevertheless there is not that level of knowledge about ticks when the efficiency of control strategies depends on how adapted they are to the type of tick, hosts and environment.&nbsp; In order to make understand the importance we are going to use three species of ticks: <em>Rhipicephalus (B) microplus, Rhipicephalus bursa </em>and<em> Hyalomma lusitanicum. </em></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>R.(B) microplus, </em>the most worrying tick affecting cattle over the world, is a one host tick which all stages feed on the same host. The life cycle is completed in a short period of time (approximately 21 days from larvae to adult on host, 15 days to laid egg by engorged female and other 15 days to hatch larvae).&nbsp; Larva is the only stage that need to look for a hosts and they are in pasture at any time.&nbsp; The control should combine actions on the host, through acaricides or vaccines, and management of environment to control oviposition in soil and host seeking larvae.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>R.bursa</em> is a diphasic and monotropic tick feeding as immature and adult on horses or ruminants. Although immature infestation in fall is not so evident than adults in early summer. In order to avoid transtadial transmission of pathogens, for example <em>Theileria equi</em>, control measures should be mainly focused on larvae and nymphs while feeding on hosts and not just in adults, as it is usual.&nbsp; Media measures to control larvae and adults looking for host and female oviposition are also recommendable.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>H.lusitanicum</em> the most abundant tick in many meso-Mediterranean areas, important as vector of diseases of Veterinary and Public Health importance, is a triphasic ditropic tick. As larvae and nymphs feed on wild rabbits, moulting twice in the nest.&nbsp; Host seeking adults are abundant in soil from early spring to late summer and feed mainly in ruminants.&nbsp; Control for this species is really difficult because at the same time coexist 4 cycles in different location (rabbit, deer, nest, soil) and development stages. For that it is essential to apply an integrated management tick population plan combining different strategies at bottleneck of the cycle. The most important aspect is the management of host population, not always possible. Another measure could be avoid infestation by environmental measures trying to reduce host seeking ticks, or to reduce host burden by the treatment of them with acaricides when the infestation is higher (rabbits in summer and deer in spring). The success of the control plan should be the reduction of <em>H. lusitanicum</em> population into tolerable limit. The elimination of the tick is out of the expectation objective not just because is not possible, but not convenient.&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">In conclusion, the future of tick control would be based on the knowledge of the species involved, its physiology, necessities, range of hosts and environment conditions in which should be developed, and not just in the use of acaricides on useful animals for man.&nbsp; That is the premise for tick control success and our task for next generation to avoid the overuse of acaricides to keep them effective avoiding resistances.</p> Félix Valcárcel Angeles Sonia Olmeda Copyright (c) 2019 PSM 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 4 1 36 39