Prevalence and Risk Factors of Genital Diseases of Goats and Ewes in the far North Region of Cameroon
Keywords:Ewes, goat, genital pathologies, fertility, Maroua, Cameroon.
This study was carried out at the municipal slaughterhouse of Maroua (Far-North Cameroon), in order to determine the prevalence and risk factors of the pathologies of the genitals organs of local goats and ewes. A total of 631 genital tracts were examined, including 448 and 183 for goats and ewes, respectively. Before slaughter, the animals were characterized (breed, age, weight and Body Condition Score (BCS)). After slaughter, the entire genital tract of each female was carefully examined for morphological or pathological abnormalities. The ovaries of each animal were also sampled to determine the follicular population and ovarian pathologies. The results indicated that means age (years), weight (kg) and BCS of females were 2.59 ± 1.49, 23.00 ± 2.19 and 2.74 ± 0.63, respectively. The mean follicular population was 9.96 ± 9.63 per ovary with 10.38 ± 5.48 and 9.03 ± 5.02, respectively, for the goat and ewe (p = 0.00). A pregnancy rate of 45.3% was observed. The overall prevalence of genital abnormalities was 36.3% with 38.20% and 31.70% respectively in goats and ewes (p = 0.10). The most common pathologies of the ovary were ovarian cysts (9.19%), oophoritis (4.28%), ovarian hypoplasias (3.96%); those in the uterus included metritis (6.81%), Cysticercus tenuicollis (3.65%) and the affections of the vagina and vulva were more represented by Cysticercus tenuicollis (3.32%). Non-pregnant and thin (BCS = 1-2) females at least 2 years old and raised in the dry season were the most affected (P <0.05).