International Journal of Molecular Microbiology https://www.journals.psmpublishers.org/index.php/ijmm <p>International Journal of Molecular Microbiology (IJMM; ISSN: 2617-7633) is a peer-reviewed, open access, international scientific journal that publishes research on all aspects of molecular microbiology.</p> en-US ijmm@psmpublishers.org (International Journal of Molecular Microbiology) info@psmpublishers.org (MANI MUGHAL) Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Characterization and antibacterial activity of Bacillus subtilis MK-4 isolated from Southern Area of Pakistan https://www.journals.psmpublishers.org/index.php/ijmm/article/view/299 <p>Antibacterial molecules are generally considered as secondary metabolites produced by bacteria during the stationary phase of their growth, which can kill or inhibit the growth of other bacteria. Nowadays, unsystematic use of antibiotics has resulted in resistant bacteria. Investigation of new antibacterial metabolites and identification of unexplored antibacterial exhibiting bacteria are necessary. In this study the bacterial isolate MK-4 was obtained from soil of local habitat (Karak, Pakistan). The isolate MK-4 was preliminarily screened for antibacterial activity against a set of Gram positive as well as Gram negative bacterial isolates. Antibacterial activity was evaluated against 9 ATCC bacterial strains including <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (29213), <em>Staphylococcus epidermidis</em> (12228), <em>Escherichia coli</em> (25922), <em>Salmonella typhimurium</em> (14028), Shigella flexneri (12022), <em>Streptoccocus pneumonia</em> (6305), <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> (27853), <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> (13889) and <em>Vibrio cholerae</em> (9459) and 4 clinical multidrug resistant (<em>A. buemannii, S, aureus, E. coli </em>and <em>P. aeruginosa</em>). Antibacterial activity was measured as zone of inhibition (ZOI) in mm. Identification of bacterial isolate <em>B. subtilis</em> MK-4 was based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing apart from biochemical and morphological characteristics. The isolate was further optimized for growth as well as for antibacterial metabolites production at different pH, temperature and incubation time. The isolate MK-4 showed maximum growth at 30 <sup>0</sup>C, maximum antibacterial activity at 37 <sup>0</sup>C. MK-4 exhibited maximum growth and antibacterial activity at pH 8 after 48 hours incubation time.</p> Sajid Iqbal, Hazir Rahman, Farida Begum, Imran sajid, MUHAMMAD Qasim Copyright (c) 2019 PSM http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.journals.psmpublishers.org/index.php/ijmm/article/view/299 Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Molecular identification of filamentous fungi diversity in North Coast beaches sands of Puerto Rico https://www.journals.psmpublishers.org/index.php/ijmm/article/view/313 <p>The Northern region has a great variety of beaches with diverse microbial characteristics. Beach sands receive direct contamination from the garbage generated by people, which serves as nutrient for fungi growth. The objectives of this investigation were to assess the filamentous fungi diversity of four popular beaches; identify the genus and species; and identify the taxonomic relationship between the most abundant fungi. The beaches studied are located in the towns of Vega Baja, Manatí, Barceloneta and Arecibo. One sample of dry sand per month from three equidistant points were acquired every month for a year in each beach. The samples were homogenized according to dry (December-April) and humid (May-November) seasons, for a total of four composite samples per season. The DNA of each sample was isolated and quantified; and, upon sequencing, evaluated by metagenomics analysis with MG-RAST. There were 104 fungi species identified by DNA sequencing analysis. The most abundant were: <em>Aspergillus penicillioides,</em> <em>Aspergillus terreus, Microascus sp., Arthrographis kalrae, Paramicrosporidium sp., Dokmaia sp</em>., <em>Gliomastix polychroma </em>and <em>Aspergillus sp</em>. The taxonomic analysis demonstrated that there is not relationship in the genus of the most abundant species. As significant finding, 66 species of new registries were identified, including <em>Malassezia restricta</em>, <em>Arthrographics eremomycyces</em>, and <em>Cephaliophora tropica</em>. Not only were many of the species pathogenic, several genus of filamentous fungi have been previously isolated from patients in nasal culture, and can cause eye, respiratory and skin disease. The majority of these fungi use direct contact and air transport as transmission vehicle to the host.</p> Lourdes Echevarría Copyright (c) 2019 PSM http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.journals.psmpublishers.org/index.php/ijmm/article/view/313 Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000