International Journal of Molecular Microbiology <p>International Journal of Molecular Microbiology (IJMM; ISSN: 2617-7633) is a peer-reviewed, open access, international scientific journal that publishes research on all aspects of molecular microbiology.</p> PSM en-US International Journal of Molecular Microbiology 2617-7633 Characterization of Ceftazidime Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Bacteria in Lahore, Pakistan <p>The aim of the current study was to determine Ceftazidime resistance in clinical isolates of bacteria in Lahore, Pakistan. This study was carried out at Lahore in Pathology Laboratory, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital from January to June 2018.&nbsp; In order to study the Ceftazidime resistant pattern, a total of 190 clinical samples were collected from different patients. From these collected samples exceeding number 88 were of pus samples followed by 56 blood, 25 sputum and 21 urine samples. All clinical samples were subjected to conventional cultural and biochemical methods for microbial enumeration. Antibiotic sensitivity was analyzed using agar disk diffusion method. The results revealed a higher prevalence of clinical samples among females (53.68%), and in age group 0-20 years (67%). Prevalence of bacteria isolated was&nbsp;<em>Escherichia coli</em>&nbsp;(81.57%), followed by<em>&nbsp;Staphylococcus aureus</em>&nbsp;(7.89%),<em>&nbsp;Pseudomonas sp.</em>&nbsp;(4.22%),&nbsp;<em>Klebsiella sp.</em>&nbsp;(3.16%), and&nbsp;<em>Proteus sp.</em>&nbsp;(3.16%). Rate of resistance to Ceftazidime was higher in females than in the males. Teenagers were highly resistant to Ceftazidime. Among the bacterial isolates, higher resistance to Ceftazidime was shown by&nbsp;<em>E.coli</em>&nbsp;(56.31%), followed by&nbsp;<em>S.aureus</em>&nbsp;(6.84%),&nbsp;<em>Pseudomonas sp.</em>&nbsp;(4.21%)<em>,</em>&nbsp;<em>Klebsiella sp.&nbsp;</em>(1.57%), and least resistance by<em>&nbsp;Proteus sp.</em>&nbsp;(1.05%). Resistance to Ceftazidime illustrated that more consumption of a specific antibiotic leads to sustainability of resistance against those antibiotics.</p> Mehwish Saleem Ayesha Batool Muhammad Naeem Iqbal Asfa Ashraf Copyright (c) 2018 PSM 2018-10-26 2018-10-26 1 2 44 50 Incidence of Anti HbsAg and HCV in the Young Orphans of District Nowshera, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan <p>This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of HCV, hepatitis B and associated risk factors among the orphans aged 5-17 years of district Nowshera, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. A total of 93 individuals were screened for HCV and HBV, among them, 73 were males and 20 females. Initially, all the samples were diagnosed for the HBsAg and HCV virus through immune-chromatographic test (ICT) and were further confirmed positive through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). After analysis, 7 individuals were found positive through ICT device, of which 3 were females and 4 were male individuals, but the PCR results were negative for all 7 samples. Similarly, for HBV, a total of 3 (3.22%) patients were recorded positive by ICT and 2 (66.67 %) were male and 1 (33.34%) was female. Among them, a single case was positive on polymerase chain reaction. Disease frequency showed a growing pattern that need awareness of all concerned. A considerable health education campaign and vaccination at health care should be planned to limit its spread.</p> Murad Ali Rahat Habib Ahmed Muhammad Ismail Khan Abdul Rauf Amjad Ali Muhammad Kalim Hakim Khan Copyright (c) 2018 PSM 2018-10-27 2018-10-27 1 2 51 55 BRCA Mutations and Survival Outcome in Young-onset Breast Cancer <h3><strong>EDITORIAL</strong></h3> <p>BRCA1/2 mutations are the most common germline mutations, accounting for up to 40% of familial breast cancer (Shuen and Foulkes, 2011).&nbsp;<em>BRCA1&nbsp;</em>and<em>BRCA2&nbsp;</em>are tumor suppressor genes identified in the early 1990s(Hall et al., 1992; Lenoir et al., 1991). BRCA1 mutation was found in 7% of patients at the time of breast cancer diagnosis in a large analysis including 3,345 patients who were aged ≤50 years. However, BRCA1 carriers were significantly younger (mean age 41.9 versus 44.1, P &lt; 0.001), and had more ER-negative (84.1% versus 38.1%, P &lt; 0.001) and HER2-negative (93% versus 79%, P &lt; 0.001) tumors (Huzarski&nbsp;<em>et al.,</em>&nbsp;2013).</p> <p>The high BRCA1 mutation signature expression is consistent with the relatively high prevalence of BRCA1 mutations in younger patients(Huzarski et al., 2013; Young et al., 2009). Patients with BRCA1 mutations are generally diagnosed with basal-like tumors(Criscitiello&nbsp;<em>et al.,</em>&nbsp;2012); earlier work proposed that luminal progenitors appear to be the cell of origin of these tumors and are regulated by c-kit (Lim&nbsp;<em>et al.,</em>&nbsp;2009). Several recent studies have reported on the landscape of somatic mutations in breast cancer but, very little is known regarding the pattern of somatic mutations in younger women. The whole genome sequencing of 100 breast tumors was performed but no correlation was established between total number of somatic base substitution and age at diagnosis in both ER-positive (P = 0.33) and ER-negative (P = 0.14) tumors (Stephens&nbsp;<em>et al.,</em>&nbsp;2012).</p> <p>Several factors discriminate the biology of both breast cancer in young patients and the patients themselves from that of tumors and patients who are diagnosed later in life. There might be association between cancer and a previous pregnancy or pathogenesis based on a genetic predisposition; some studies suggest a direct connection between both cancers associated with a previous pregnancy and a genetic predisposition to cancer (Sigl&nbsp;<em>et al.,</em>&nbsp;2016).&nbsp;<em>BRCA&nbsp;</em>mutations occur more often in breast cancer (BC), but their prognostic impact on outcomes of BC has not been established. An updated meta-analysis on the association between&nbsp;<em>BRCA</em>&nbsp;mutations and survival in patients with BC showed median prevalence rates of&nbsp;<em>BRCA1</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>BRCA2</em>&nbsp;mutations were 14.5% and 8.3%, respectively.</p> <p><em>BRCA1</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>BRCA2</em>&nbsp;mutations were correlated with poor overall survival in patients with BC, but had no significant impact on breast cancer-specific survival or event-free survival. BC patients having&nbsp;<em>BRCA1</em>&nbsp;mutation and treated with endocrinotherapy were found to show an improved survival. The results may have therapeutic and prognostic implications important for&nbsp;<em>BRCA</em>&nbsp;mutation carriers with BC (Zhu&nbsp;<em>et al.,</em>&nbsp;2016).</p> <p>The fact that young women with familial breast cancer syndromes appear to develop the disease more often adds further complexity to the biological make-up of young-onset breast cancer in women. Further research to reveal the causes for the establishment of disease in this high risk young population in particular is obviously warranted.</p> Asfa Ashraf Xiaoxue Xiong Muhammad Naeem Iqbal Yao Lin Copyright (c) 2018 PSM 2018-10-27 2018-10-27 1 2 56 57 Ceftazidime Resistant Bacteria in Clinical Samples: Do We Need New Antibiotics? <h3><strong>EDITORIAL:</strong></h3> <p>Antibiotic resistant strains and species referred to as ‘’super bugs’’ contribute to emergence of disease. Antibiotic resistant bacterial infections have become a threat, in particular in developing countries. Incidence and mortality from infectious diseases have increased during the past decade. Antibiotic resistance causes biological cost by reducing fitness of resistant strains, which can minimize the spread of resistant bacteria. Additional mutations also aid in the survival of resistant bacteria (Topp&nbsp;<em>et al.,</em>&nbsp;2013). Microbes that are resistant to multiple antimicrobials are called multidrug resistant (MDR) (Iqbal&nbsp;<em>et al.,</em>2015a). Antibiotics are among the most commonly prescribed drugs in hospitals and in developed countries about 30% of the hospitalized patients are treated with these drugs (Shankar&nbsp;<em>et al.,</em>&nbsp;2003).</p> <p>In this issue, Saleem et al. report the Ceftazidime resistance in clinical isolates of bacteria. The proportions of resistant isolates to Ceftazidime ranged&nbsp;<em>E.coli</em>56.31%,&nbsp;<em>Staphylococcus aureus&nbsp;</em>6.84%,&nbsp;<em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>&nbsp;4.21%,&nbsp;<em>Klebsiella</em>&nbsp;1.57%, and&nbsp;<em>Proteus sp.&nbsp;</em>1.05%. Our data showed that female patients had the highest level of resistant bacteria compared to males. That significantly more resistant bacteria were found in female clinical samples correlates with a higher susceptibility of infection in females than males, due to the physiological and anatomical differences.</p> <p>Ceftazidime is a third-generation cephalosporin that was introduced into clinical use in the 1980s because of its verified broad spectrum activity against Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative bacilli, including&nbsp;<em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>&nbsp;(Turner, 2009). The emergence of Ceftazidime-resistant bacteria must be considered one of the most frightening consequences of microbial evolution in the last 2 decades.&nbsp;The physicians prescribe broad spectrum antibiotics without antibiotic susceptibility test. There is no systematic national surveillance of antibiotic resistance and insufficient data is available to quantify the problem (Abdul&nbsp;<em>et al.,</em>&nbsp;2008). Resistance to Ceftazidime demonstrated that more consumption of a specific antibiotic leads to sustainability of resistance against it. These resistant isolates can be further studied in terms of their multidrug resistance and resistance to other antibiotics to find a suitable antibiotic or combinations of antibiotics for the treatment of infectious diseases. Plant derived products can be tested to determine antibacterial activity (Hussain&nbsp;<em>et al.,</em>2016; Iqbal&nbsp;<em>et al.,</em>&nbsp;2015b; Shahzad&nbsp;<em>et al.,</em>&nbsp;2017) that can be used to treat infectious diseases.</p> <p>Although well conducted, there are some limitations to the present work. The molecular methods can be employed to detect antibiotic resistance. Moreover, the types of bacteria tested were limited to 5 strains. More attention is needed to recognize and measure trends in resistance internally. There is an immediate need to step out and control these pathogenic infections and lest effectiveness of antibiotics.</p> Muhammad Naeem Iqbal Asfa Ashraf Copyright (c) 2018 PSM 2018-10-28 2018-10-28 1 2 58 59 Recent Advances in Plant Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering: Application in Agriculture <p>Increasing population is facing the challenge for food security. Researchers are searching the convenient and fast ways for improving crop production. Basic research provides us with genetic mechanism of plants. Tools have been discovered to manipulate and alter these mechanisms to get the new and desirable products and to incorporate innovative characteristics in plants. Synthetically made promoters, enhancers and repressors for native or transgene expression regulation are some of these tools. Some tools like, transformation of plant with artificially synthesized chromosomes and linked multiple genes are gaining importance. The most advanced one is CRISPR-Cas genome editing system. To assess their implicational potential in addressing agro-environmental problems, such genomic tools should be integrated.</p> Mahpara Fatima Madiha Zaynab Yasir Sharif Safdar Abbas Muhammad Hammad Zaffar Tahira Saleem Copyright (c) 2018 PSM 2018-10-20 2018-10-20 1 2 40 43