International Journal of Molecular Microbiology 2020-01-28T17:08:36+00:00 International Journal of Molecular Microbiology Open Journal Systems <p>International Journal of Molecular Microbiology (IJMM; ISSN: 2617-7633) is a peer-reviewed, open access, international scientific journal that publishes research on all aspects of molecular microbiology.</p> Filamentous Fungi in Beach Sands: Potential Pathogens for Infectious Diseases 2020-01-28T16:56:13+00:00 Muhammad Naeem Iqbal Asfa Ashraf Azara Iqbal <p>Beach sand is a habitat that supports many microbes, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa. The microbes often get carried down streams to sea coasts where waves, currents and tides later deposit them on beaches. Microbiological contamination is more significant in the sand than in adjacent waters since sand acts as a passive port for cumulative contamination. Beach sands receive direct contamination from the garbage generated by people, which serves as nutrient for fungi growth. Humans receive extensive exposure to sand-associated microbes during recreational activities. While most of them are harmless, some are pathogenic, and the potential for pathogen occurrence is particularly great when sand is contaminated by human or animal waste. In order to understand the significance of pathogen occurrence in beach sand, it is important to understand potential for exposure and to conduct risk assessments and epidemiological studies.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 PSM Characterization and Antibacterial Activity of Bacillus subtilis MK-4 Isolated from Southern Area of Pakistan 2020-01-24T15:32:30+00:00 Sajid Iqbal Hazir Rahman Farida Begum Imran sajid Muhammad Qasim <p>Antibacterial molecules are generally considered as secondary metabolites produced by bacteria during the stationary phase of their growth, which can kill or inhibit the growth of other bacteria. Nowadays, the unsystematic use of antibiotics has resulted in resistant bacteria. Investigation of new antibacterial metabolites and the identification of unexplored antibacterial exhibiting bacteria are necessary. In this study, the bacterial isolate MK-4 was obtained from the soil of the local habitat (Karak, Pakistan). The isolate MK-4 was preliminarily screened for antibacterial activity against a set of Gram-positive as well as Gram-negative bacterial isolates. Antibacterial activity was evaluated against 9 ATCC bacterial strains including <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (29213), <em>Staphylococcus epidermidis</em> (12228), <em>Escherichia coli</em> (25922), <em>Salmonella typhimurium</em> (14028), <em>Shigella flexneri</em> (12022), <em>Streptoccocus pneumonia</em> (6305), <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> (27853), <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> (13889) and <em>Vibrio cholerae</em> (9459) and 4 clinical multidrug-resistant (<em>A. buemannii, S. aureus, E. coli </em>and <em>P. aeruginosa</em>). Antibacterial activity was measured as zone of inhibition (ZOI) in mm. Identification of bacterial isolate <em>B. subtilis</em> MK-4 was based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing apart from biochemical and morphological characteristics. The isolate was further optimized for growth as well as for antibacterial metabolites production at different pH, temperature and incubation time. The isolate MK-4 showed maximum growth at 30°C, maximum antibacterial activity at 37°C. MK-4 exhibited maximum growth and antibacterial activity at pH 8 after 48 hours incubation time.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 PSM Molecular identification of filamentous fungi diversity in North Coast beaches sands of Puerto Rico 2020-01-24T02:45:52+00:00 Lourdes Echevarría <p>The Northern region has a great variety of beaches with diverse microbial characteristics. Beach sands receive direct contamination from the garbage generated by people, which serves as nutrient for fungi growth. The objectives of this investigation were to assess the filamentous fungi diversity of four popular beaches; identify the genus and species; and identify the taxonomic relationship between the most abundant fungi. The beaches studied are located in the towns of Vega Baja, Manatí, Barceloneta and Arecibo. One sample of dry sand per month from three equidistant points was acquired every month for a year in each beach. The samples were homogenized according to dry (December-April) and humid (May-November) seasons, for a total of four composite samples per season. The DNA of each sample was isolated and quantified; and, upon sequencing, evaluated by metagenomics analysis with MG-RAST. There were 104 fungi species identified by DNA sequencing analysis. The most abundant were: <em>Aspergillus penicillioides,</em> <em>Aspergillus terreus, Microascus sp., Arthrographis kalrae, Paramicrosporidium sp., Dokmaia sp</em>., <em>Gliomastix polychroma </em>and <em>Aspergillus sp</em>. The taxonomic analysis demonstrated that there is no relationship in the genus of the most abundant species. As significant finding, 66 species of new registries were identified, including <em>Malassezia restricta</em>, <em>Arthrographics eremomycyces</em>, and <em>Cephaliophora tropica</em>. Not only were many of the species pathogenic, several genera of filamentous fungi have been previously isolated from patients in nasal culture, and can cause eye, respiratory and skin disease. The majority of these fungi use direct contact and air transport as transmission vehicle to the host.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 PSM Letter from the Executive Editors 2020-01-28T17:02:43+00:00 Asfa Ashraf Azara Iqbal <p>No abstract is available.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 PSM Letter From the Editor-In-Chief 2020-01-28T17:08:36+00:00 Muhammad Naeem Iqbal <p>No abstract is available.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 PSM