Filamentous Fungi in Beach Sands: Potential Pathogens for Infectious Diseases

Authors

  • Muhammad Naeem Iqbal The School of Life Sciences, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China; Pakistan Science Mission (PSM), Narowal (Noor Kot 51770), Pakistan.
  • Asfa Ashraf The School of Life Sciences, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350117, China; Pakistan Science Mission (PSM), Narowal (Noor Kot 51770), Pakistan.
  • Azara Iqbal Pakistan Science Mission (PSM), Narowal (Noor Kot 51770), Pakistan.

Keywords:

Beach sand, pathogen, filamentous fungi, contamination, infectious diseases.

Abstract

Beach sand is a habitat that supports many microbes, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa. The microbes often get carried down streams to sea coasts where waves, currents and tides later deposit them on beaches. Microbiological contamination is more significant in the sand than in adjacent waters since sand acts as a passive port for cumulative contamination. Beach sands receive direct contamination from the garbage generated by people, which serves as nutrient for fungi growth. Humans receive extensive exposure to sand-associated microbes during recreational activities. While most of them are harmless, some are pathogenic, and the potential for pathogen occurrence is particularly great when sand is contaminated by human or animal waste. In order to understand the significance of pathogen occurrence in beach sand, it is important to understand potential for exposure and to conduct risk assessments and epidemiological studies.

Published

2019-12-31

How to Cite

Iqbal, M. N., Ashraf, A., & Iqbal, A. (2019). Filamentous Fungi in Beach Sands: Potential Pathogens for Infectious Diseases. International Journal of Molecular Microbiology, 2(3), 63-65. Retrieved from https://www.journals.psmpublishers.org/index.php/ijmm/article/view/384

Issue

Section

Perspectives
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