PSM Biological Research <p style="text-align: justify;">PSM Biological Research (ISSN; 2517-9586) is a peer-reviewed, open access, multidisciplinary,&nbsp; international journal that publishes research on all aspects of biology and allied sciences.</p> PSM en-US PSM Biological Research 2517-9586 The Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the species Silene inflata Sm. <p>This study is devoted to the estimation of total phenolic content and the evaluation of <em>in vitro</em> antioxidant and antibacterial activities of crude extracts (petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanolic) obtained from the species <em>Silene inflata</em> Sm. The total phenolic content of the obtained extracts was estimated spectrophotometrically by Folin-Ciocalteu method, the antioxidant activity was determinated by scavenging of the free radical DPPH. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity was assessed by agar disk diffusion assay against four bacterial strains. The results of the phytochemical screening of crude extracts revealed the presence of several types of secondary metabolites including: steroids, alkaloids, tannins, polyphenols and saponins. The ethyl acetate extract recorded the highest content of polyphenols (8.60 ± 0.01 µg GAE/mg of plant extract) followed by the methanolic and petroleum ether extracts respectively. The results of the antioxidant activity showed that all the tested extracts had the ability to scavenge the free radical DPPH and possess an antioxidant activity in a dose-dependent manner. The methanolic extract has a strong antioxidant activity with an IC<sub>50</sub> value of 23.53 ± 0.15 μg/mL. The crude extracts (petroleum ether and ethyl acetate) had no antibacterial effect against all the tested strains compared to penicillin and gentamicin as positive controls. While the methanolic extract revealed an antibacterial effect only against the clinical strain <em>Staphylococcus albus</em> with a value of the minimum inhibitory concentration at 0.5 mg/ml. In conclusion, the species <em>Silene inflata</em> Sm. could be an important source of new therapeutic agents against pathological damage due to free radicals and microbial infections.</p> soumia mouffouk chaima mouffouk Leila Hambaba sara mouffouk Samia Dekkiche Copyright (c) 2019 PSM 2019-04-28 2019-04-28 4 2 74 86 Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis in children of district Mardan, Pakistan <p>This study was conducted from October 2013 to March 2014 to find out the prevalence rate of <em>E. vermicularis</em> in children of district Mardan. Direct stool smearing method was applied for the examination of the collected samples. The samples were mixed with normal saline solution from each of the sample 2-3 slide smears were obtained and examined under the microscope. During this period total of about 370 children were examined for the presence of <em>E. vermicularis</em>. In these 370 about 126 were infected and the overall prevalence rate of <em>E. vermicularis</em> was about 34.05%. Similarly, the prevalence rate was recorded under different parameters in consideration of gender, age and month. It was concluded that high rate of infestation with <em>E. vermicularis</em> was found in district Mardan. Thus, it can be controlled and minimized by good living condition, hygiene, health education and clean water supply.</p> Abdullah Abdullah Copyright (c) 2019 PSM 2019-04-30 2019-04-30 4 2 58 62 Condition Factor and Length-weight Relationship of Pond Reared Labeo rohita <p><em>Labeo rohita</em> is commercially important freshwater fish, commonly known as rohu. A total of 240 samples of <em>Labeo rohita</em> collected from the twelve (12) different ponds treated with 3 concentrations of n-3 fatty acid (0.3%, 0.6%, and 0.9%), 2 levels of vitamin C (0.75g/Kg&nbsp; and 1.5 g/Kg) and Vitamin E (300 mg/g and 600 mg/g) were investigated for condition factor and length-weight. The relationship between length and weight of <em>Labeo rohita</em> from fish catch was calculated between the two parameters by creating correlation and regression.&nbsp; Weight was highly correlated with total length in all <em>Labeo rohita</em> in the current study. The minimum (0.975) and maximum (0.997) values of coefficient of determination (R²) were noted in <em>Labeo rohita</em> collected from different ponds. Positive isometric growth was recorded in all sampled <em>Labeo rohita</em> of all treated ponds. The values of condition factor (K) calculated for, <em>Labeo rohita</em>, ranged between 0.964-1.896 in all ponds indicated the good condition of fish. It could be concluded that <em>Labeo rohita</em> attains more weight per unit of length in different ponds. These observed parameters were useful to evaluate the wellbeing of <em>Labeo rohita</em> population in the water bodies and provided useful information on fish biology for fisheries management scientifically.</p> Tariq Mahmood Abdul Mateen Muhammad Arfan Hadyait Copyright (c) 2019 PSM 2019-04-30 2019-04-30 4 2 89 96 Silene inflata Sm: a Potential Source of New Therapeutic Agents <h1>Editorial</h1> <p>The genus&nbsp;<em>Silene</em>&nbsp;is one&nbsp;of the largest genera of the family Caryophyllaceae, comprising&nbsp;about 700 species (Edalatiyan&nbsp;<em>et&nbsp;al.,</em>&nbsp;2010). Species of this genus are often&nbsp;used&nbsp;in folk medicine for the treatment of various diseases.&nbsp;The species&nbsp;<em>Silene inflata</em>&nbsp;Sm. is a perennial plant, with oval or lanceolate leaves and white flowers, rarely pinkish. It is distributed in North Africa, North America, Europe, Western and Central Asia. In the region of Marrakesh (Morocco) the decoction prepared from root parts of&nbsp;<em>S. inflata</em>&nbsp;is used at the low dose, like vomit and general antidote in cases of poisoning. This plant is also used as an infusion against constipation, to treat wounds, scabies and pruritus and various dermatosis. But it is considered toxic in high doses (Bellakhdar, 1997).</p> <p>Read more,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,</p> Muhammad Naeem Iqbal Asfa Ashraf Copyright (c) 2019 PSM 2019-04-30 2019-04-30 4 2 97 99 Gelatin; Switch back to Halal: A Mini-Review <p style="text-align: justify;">Gelatin is a traditional functional protein with water-soluble properties and has the potential of forming transparent gels under certain conditions. The main source of gelatin is pigskin and is widely used in processed food and medicinal products. Though the use of food products adulterated with porcine-derived gelatin create concerns in the mind of Muslims community, as in Islam, it is not acceptable or literally, we call it Haram. However, in recent times initiatives have been taken in producing gelatin from Halal sources, such as fish, chicken and bovine slaughtered according to Islamic teachings. Therefore, we highlighted different porcine alternative derived gelatin sources and also methods to detect edible product adulterated with pork or other haram stuff. This review could be useful in providing information to a large number of audience and food processing companies to minimize or if possible eradicate the use of porcine-derived gelatin in commercial food and medicinal products.</p> Rahat Sharif Copyright (c) 2019 PSM 2019-04-29 2019-04-29 4 2 63 73 Impact of High Density Orchards in Crop Efficiency, High Yield and Fruit Quality <p><strong>OPINION</strong></p> <p>The gardening, flowering, and orchards planting are an integral part of Islamic culture and civilization, which can be still seen in different cities of Pakistan and around the globe. It seems cogent to remind that in this divine look of Muslim various fruits like Apple, Grapes, Dates, and Pomegranate, etc. has been discussed along with their nutrition values. Apart from it in Islam horticulture, tree plantations have been described as an act of worship as it entails in mankind betterment (Nawaz <em>et al.,</em> 2007). The cultivation of fruit plants is a thin edge of increase in Pakistan with every passing day. The orchards of grapes, Apple, Peach, Guava, Apricot, Mangoes, and dates are available around in Pakistan at various ranges.</p> <p>As Pakistan is a good producer of fruits so it is to be pointed out that about 8 – 9 Lac hectares of agricultural land of Pakistan has been covered by orchards from which we obtain 72 Lac tons of fruits yearly. In Pakistan our basic problem is that our growers are not fully conversant with the most modern, intensive cropping, and harvesting techniques due to which our per acre yield is adversely affected which limits to 8.23 Tons per acre in comparison to 20 – 25 Tons per acre of western countries which is very low (Nasir <em>et al.,</em> 2006).</p> <p>The agricultural experts, on the basis of their research, knowledge and experience pointed out the weaker areas for low productivity i.e. more or extraordinary distance between plants, sowing of potentially less yield varieties, less immunity against any attack or infection, less use of rootstock and pre and post-harvest losses (Monga <em>et al.,</em> 2011).&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">According to agricultural experts in order to increase the per acre yield of orchards, apart from traditional agricultural practices we have to adopt modern techniques for the production enhancement (Athani <em>et al.,</em> 2009). The experts suggested few modern strategies i.e. more use of dwarf varieties fruit plants, reducing the interplant distance in order to transplant maximum plants, excellent use of rootstock, minimize pre and post-harvest losses, reliable and most efficient transportation routes for supply chain, and dense cropping (Bassal, 2009). In European counties, by adopting these techniques many farmers are planting 5000 to 9000 per acre in order to enhance their fruit productivity (Zekri, 2000). As the number of fruit plants increases, the productivity gets a boost due to less height and the fruit season starts earlier which increases the farmer income thrice, which is an ultimate gain.</p> Imran Arshad Copyright (c) 2019 PSM 2019-04-29 2019-04-29 4 2 87 88