PSM Biological Research <p style="text-align: justify;">PSM Biological Research (ISSN; 2517-9586) is a peer-reviewed, open access, multidisciplinary,&nbsp; international journal that publishes research on all aspects of biology and allied sciences.</p> PSM en-US PSM Biological Research 2517-9586 Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) as a Promising Chemoprotective Agent for Liver Therapy <p>There is a great interest in combining anticancer drugs with natural products aiming at maximizing their efficacy while minimizing systemic toxicity. Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) was used against chemotherapy-induced organ toxicity. Screening for natural substances with chemopreventive properties in order to reduce the negative effects of chemotherapeutic drugs is very urgent. It has been demonstrated that milk thistle extract could act as a promising chemoprotective agent for liver therapy to avoid side effects.</p> Muhammad Naeem Iqbal Asfa Ashraf Copyright (c) 2020 PSM 2020-01-31 2020-01-31 5 1 55 57 Emerging Viruses Worldwide: A Global Challenge Illustrated by Coronavirus <p>No abstract is available.</p> Muhammad Naeem Iqbal Copyright (c) 2020 PSM 2020-01-31 2020-01-31 5 1 58 60 Importance of Drip Irrigation System Installation and Management - A Review <p>Management of the drip irrigation system requires proper knowledge of the system, climate and suitable environmental conditions for the cultivated crops. To achieve good management practices for drip irrigation, the impacts of climate variables on plant growth and production during different seasons should be understood. The planning of irrigation system and installation of components in the right way is considered one of the most essential matters to ensure the highest efficiency possible use of available irrigation water and allows the plants to benefit from the most water used. Assessment of the irrigation system and improving its efficiency involves many variables, the details concerning the parts of the irrigation system and also the method of its management and maintenance. Periodic maintenance of the irrigation system is very important, especially when the irrigation system is compact and by drip, for the sustainability of the irrigation system and ensure no poor distribution of water efficiency. The maintenance includes repair and replaces any of the parts of the irrigation system to prevent leaks and closures. Also, it includes maintenance and washing the filter and irrigation pipes to remove the accumulated impurities and salts. This paper describes the drip irrigation system components, installation, and management of the users which are required for the different stakeholders in the agricultural sector.</p> Imran Arshad Copyright (c) 2020 PSM 2020-01-31 2020-01-31 5 1 22 29 Effect of Moringa oleifera Seeds on the Microbiological and Physicochemical Parameters of Industrial and Kitchen Effluents <p>This study was carried out to determine the effects of <em>Moringa oleifera</em> seeds on the microbial and physiological parameters of industrial and kitchen effluents. Different concentrations of the Moringa seeds (1%, 2%, 4%, and 8%) were prepared and used to treat known volumes of domestic and kitchen effluents using alum (1%) as the control for a 4 day treatment period.&nbsp; Phytochemical screening, coagulation, and microbiological studies were carried out using standard methods. The results revealed the presence of several phytochemicals including Flavonoids, alkaloids, cardiac, glycosides, saponins, reducing sugars, terpenoids, and coumarins in both the ethanol and aqueous extracts of the Moringa seeds. Coagulation studies revealed that the pH of the industrial effluent treated with 1% alum (control) and 1% Moringa increased from day 1 (pH3.75) to day 4 (pH4.0). Conductivity values showed that the industrial effluent treated with 8% Moringa had the highest conductivity value on day 1 (2470?/m) while 1% Moringa treated group had the lowest value on day 4 (1000?/m). Microbial studies revealed that lowest values for the heterotrophic count (83 x 10<sup>2</sup>), coliform count on MAC agar (124 x 10<sup>2</sup>) and coliform count on EMB agar (130 x 10<sup>2</sup>) for the industrial effluent. Industrial effluent treated with 1% Moringa had the lowest MPN value of 7 on day 4.&nbsp; The results showed that <em>M. oleifera</em> seeds have good coagulation abilities and can be used in water treatment processes. However, further research into optimum parameters required for efficient treatment of effluents should be encouraged.</p> Ikponmwoba P. Osarugue Daniel E. Omonigho Olisaka N. Frances Uwadiae Eseosa Copyright (c) 2020 PSM 2020-01-29 2020-01-29 5 1 1 13 Protective Effect of Silybum marianum Extract against Doxorubicin Induced Toxicity in Male Rats <p><em>Silybum marianum</em> (Milk thistle) has been used in the treatment of various diseases including liver diseases and the prevention and treatment of cancer and has also been known to be used as food. Therefore, in the present research, the safety usage of milk thistle extract and its ability to alleviate doxorubicin-induced toxicity in rats was examined. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups, 1<sup>st</sup> group was used as control, the 2<sup>nd</sup>, 3<sup>rd,</sup> and 4<sup>th</sup> groups administrated plant extract (100 mg/ml/Kg, orally), doxorubicin (15 mg/kg, i.p.) and plant extract plus doxorubicin respectively for 15 days except for doxorubicin which was injected on the 14<sup>th</sup> day. Data of present research proved the ability of milk thistle extract to alleviate doxorubicin-induced toxicity on various biochemical and hematological parameters, regulation of COX1 gene expression level as well as decreasing plasma and liver TBARS and increasing total antioxidant capacity, reduced GSH, GST, and GPx that minimized oxidative stress induced by the drug. In conclusion, milk thistle extract could be used during doxorubicin chemotherapy treatment as a natural source to avoid the side effects induced by this chemotherapeutic agent.</p> Sarah Othman Safaa Mohamed Ali Nehal M. El- Deeb Copyright (c) 2020 PSM 2020-01-29 2020-01-29 5 1 14 21 The Effect of Bromocriptine on the Liver of Immature Female Rats <p style="text-align: justify;">The present study was performed to determine the effect of bromocriptine (BRO) a dopamine agonist on the liver of immature female rats. Sixty-five immature rats (15 days old) weighing 20-25g were assigned into four groups (20 for each group except the first group of 5 animals), the first group was initial control sacrificed on day 1 of the experiment. The second group served as control and received vehicle (IP), the third and fourth group received BRO (IP) at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg BW respectively for two durations (7 days and 21 days). Five animals of each group were maintained for 1 month without treatment for recovery study. BRO treatment caused; i) a significant decrease in the body weight, ii) a significant increase in the weight of the liver, iii) a significant increase in serum levels of alkaline phosphatase in immature rats of both treated groups when compared to the control group. Histological changes in the liver were observed in both BRO treated groups of each duration indicating that BRO induced liver injury. From the present study, we conclude that despite the effect of BRO in the liver of immature female rats, a period of one month without treatment was sufficient for the recovery of BRO effects.</p> Nada M. H. Al-Hamdani Ameen M. H. Ali Bushra Y. H. Al-Khatib Elham Shukri Al-Shaibani Copyright (c) 2020 PSM 2020-01-31 2020-01-31 5 1 30 39 Optimization and Efficiency Comparison of Dispersive and Cartridge Solid Phase Extraction Cleanup Techniques in the Analysis of Pesticide Residues in Some Vegetables Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry <p>This work was conducted to demonstrate the optimization procedures and results for a sample of preparation method combining Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) extraction with cartridge solid phase extraction (c-SPE) cleanup utilized for the analysis of pesticides residues in some vegetables using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The method applied for the analysis of four pesticides of different classes; dimethoate (Organophosphorus), fenvalerate (Pyrethroid), difenoconazole (Triazole) and deltamethrin (Pyrethroid) on four types of vegetables (i.e. tomato, potato, cucumber, and carrot). The procedures simply involve the use of acetonitrile containing 1% acetic acid for the extraction, and for cleanup; a manually prepared solid-phase extraction cartridge containing primary secondary amine&nbsp;(PSA) and normal charcoal were used. The validated GC-MS analysis method for the pesticide residues in the selected vegetables has high linearity with R<sup>2</sup>&nbsp;ranged from 0.9965 to 0.9999. The precision of the method estimated as relative standard deviation (%RSD) was ? 9.4% for all target pesticides which were indicative of the high repeatability of the optimized method. The accuracy calculated as average recoveries (%R) was between 80.52% and 99.63%. LODs for target pesticides in spiked cucumber, tomato, carrot, and potato samples ranged between 0.0950 and 0.5590 ng/g. The combined sample preparation method is cost-effective and has shown good simplification, recovery and cleanup capacity and proved to be efficient and suitable for the proposed application.</p> Anass A. Alnedhary Mahfoudh M. AL-Hammadi Abdualqawi A. Numan Fatima A. Murshed Copyright (c) 2020 PSM 2020-01-31 2020-01-31 5 1 40 54