Microorganisms in the Rhizosphere and their Utilization in Agriculture: A Mini-Review
The soil microbial communities possess a complex and diverse structure. From an ecological point of view, the soil-inhabiting microbes owe a very important position because they are the leading drivers in regulating the composition of soil and distribution of other organisms. The microbes are pathogenic as well as non-pathogenic. The latter category, are generally known for their beneficial roles they offer to plants and other organisms. The beneficial flora of the microorganism comprises various fungi (arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi–AMF) and bacteria, generally referred to as plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB). Both AMF and PGPB are regarded as the wealth of soil because they have potential abilities to improve the soil health and plant growth. These microbes provide nutrients and organic substances to plants, remove soil pollutants, and eliminate the pathogenic organisms found in soil. On the basis of plant growth improvement abilities, AMF and PGPB can be used in agriculture as biofertilizers. This review is an attempt to explore the beneficial attributes of soil microorganisms.