International Journal of Nanotechnology and Allied Sciences 2018-07-08T15:38:17+00:00 International Journal of Nanotechnology and Allied Sciences Open Journal Systems <p>International Journal of Nanotechnology and Allied Sciences (IJNAS; ISSN: 2523-9252) is a peer-reviewed, open access,&nbsp; international journal that considers articles on all aspects of nanotechnology and allied sciences.</p> Gold Nanoparticles (GNPs): Synthesis, Properties and Conjugation Methods 2018-07-07T04:31:41+00:00 Muhammad Naeem Iqbal Asfa Ashraf Shihua Wang <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>EDITORIAL</strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Nanoparticles are defined as particles between 1 and 1000 nm that have a range of unique properties. Nanoparticles have attracted much attention in recent years for their potential applications in biomedical research including drug and gen delivery (Guo&nbsp;<em>et al.,</em>&nbsp;2010), bioimaging (Tiwari&nbsp;<em>et al.,</em>&nbsp;2011), vaccine development (Niikura&nbsp;<em>et al.,</em>&nbsp;2013), biosensors, and therapies (Nicol&nbsp;<em>et al.,</em>&nbsp;2015). The application of nanomaterials gives opportunity to provide revolutionary changes in sensitivity, specificity and rapidity of detection as well multiplexing capability, simple operation, miniaturization and low cost of such devices. Colloidal gold is a solution or colloidal suspension of nanoparticles of gold in a fluid, usually water with particles less than 100 nm. Recently it’s used in chemistry, medicine, technology, and biology. In the age of high technology with rapid growth of gold nanoparticle, immunoassay developed a potential in nano scale quantification with high and precisions accuracy. In the modern era of science and technology rapid development of immunochrmatographic assay based on colloidal gold has shown significant changes for the past half a century. Gold nanoparticles have been often studied due to their unique surface, chemical inertness, high electron density, and strong optical absorption. In recent decades, gold nanoparticles have been applied in genomics (Guo&nbsp;<em>et al.,</em>&nbsp;2010), clinical chemistry (Saha&nbsp;<em>et al.,</em>&nbsp;2012), vaccine development (Pokharkar&nbsp;<em>et al.,</em>&nbsp;2011), immunoassay (Hall&nbsp;<em>et al.,</em>&nbsp;2011), biosensors (Zayats&nbsp;<em>et al.,</em>2005), diagnosis, and microorganisms control (Pissuwan&nbsp;<em>et al.,</em>&nbsp;2010), cancer-cell imaging, and drug delivery (Pivodova&nbsp;<em>et al.,</em>&nbsp;2015). Physical and chemical interactions are used for attaching antibodies and other molecules to GNPs surface. Various factors influence the physical interaction between antibodies and gold nanoparticles including ionic attraction between the negatively charged gold and the positively charged antibody; hydrophobic attraction between the antibody and the gold surface; and dative binding between the gold conducting electrons and amino acid sulfur atoms of the antibody. Antibodies and nanoparticle surface are bonded chemically through chemisorption via thiol derivatives; through bifunctional linkers, and through the use of adapter molecules.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">For conjugation of antibodies to the gold particles, both covalent and non-covalent immobilization modes have been used (Kumar&nbsp;<em>et al.,</em>&nbsp;2008). The antibodies or other functionalized groups are non specifically adsorbed onto gold nanoparticles while still keeping the nanoparticles negatively charged, providing stability in colloidal solution. Colloidal gold nanoparticle has shown involvement, of enormous electrical, optical, magnetic, and chemical properties. The outcome of these properties has been determined based on parameters including size, shape, and structure. The peculiar characteristics of these nanoparticles are that they qualify with unlimited potential for application in the fields of medicine, biotechnology, and within nano scale application capacities. Understanding the bioconjugation, chemistry of functionalization of GNPs and detec-tion system of conjugation, opens novel opportunities for their use in biomedicine.</p> <h4 style="text-align: justify;"><strong>CONFLICT OF INTEREST</strong></h4> <p style="text-align: justify;">The authors declare that no competing interests exist.</p> <h4 style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Citation:</strong></h4> <p style="text-align: justify;">Iqbal, M.N, Ashraf, A., Wang, S., 2018. Gold Nanoparticles (GNPs): Synthesis, Properties and Conjugation Methods. Int. J. Nanotechnol. Allied Sci., 2(1): 1-2.</p> <h4 style="text-align: justify;"><strong>REFERENCES</strong></h4> <p style="text-align: justify;">Guo, S., Huang, Y., Jiang, Q., Sun, Y., Deng, L., Liang, Z. et al., 2010. Enhanced gene delivery and siRNA silencing by gold nanoparticles coated with charge-reversal polyelectrolyte, ACS Nano., 4(9): 5505-5511.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Hall, W.P., Ngatia, S.N., Van Duyne, R.P., 2011. LSPR biosensor signal enhancement using nanoparticle-antibody conjugates. J. Phys. Chem., C 115(5): 1410-1414.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Kumar, S., Aaron, J., Sokolov, K., 2008. Directional conjugation of antibodies to nanoparticles for synthesis of multiplexed optical contrast agents with both delivery and targeting moieties, Nat. Protoc., 3(2): 314–320.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Nicol, J.R., Dixon, D., Coulter, J.A., 2015. Gold nanoparticle surface functionalization: a neces-sary requirement in the development of novel nanotherapeutics. Nanomed. Nanotechnol. Biol. Med., 10(8): 1315-1326.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Niikura, K., Matsunaga, T., Suzuki, T., Kobayashi, S., Yamaguchi, H., Orba, Y. et al., 2013. Gold nanoparticles as a vaccine platform: influence of size and shape on immunological responses in vitro and in vivo, ACS Nano., 7(5): 3926-3938.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Pissuwan, D., Cortie, C.H., Valenzuela, S.M., Cortie, M.B., 2010. Functionalised gold nanopar-ticles for controlling pathogenic bacteria, Trends Biotechnol., 28(4): 207-213.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Pivodova, V., Frankova, J., Galandakova, A., Ulrichova, J., 2015. In Vitro AuNPs’ Cytotoxicity and Their Effect on Wound Healing.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Pokharkar, V., Bhumkar, D., Suresh, K., Shinde, Y., Gairola, S., Jadhav, S., 2011. Gold nanopar-ticles as a potential carrier for transmucosal vaccine delivery, J. Biomed. Nanotechnol., 7(1): 57-59.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Saha, K., Agasti, S.S., Kim, C., Li, X., Rotello, V.M., 2012. Gold nanoparticles in chemical and bi-ological sensing, Chem. Rev., 112(5): 2739-2779.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Tiwari, P.M., Vig, K., Dennis, V.A., Singh, S.R., 2011. Functionalized gold nanoparticles and their biomedical applications, Nanomaterials, 1(1): 31-63.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Zayats, M., Baron, R., Popov, I., Willner, I., 2005. Biocatalytic growth of Au nanoparticles: from mechanistic aspects to biosensors design. Nano Lett., 5(1): 21-25.</p> 2018-01-02T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Application of Colistin to Combat Bacterial Diseases in Broiler Chickens 2018-07-08T01:39:25+00:00 Saadit Rasool Qasim Ali Tahir Rasool <p>The high production rate and more efficiency of feed conversion ratio of poultry broilers make them more susceptible to diseases than ever before. Among these diseases, gastrointestinal diseases are the major threat to commercial poultry production. So for that, the supplementation of antibiotics is the vital choice for minimizing and controlling a number of bacterial diseases, as these bacterial diseases cause serious economic losses by affecting poultry production. Hence, colistin is considered one of last alternative drug in poultry medicine in response to the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>, <em>Acinetobacter</em><em> baumannii</em> and Enterobacteriaceae (<em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em>), due to which mortality of birds can be exceptionally high. So the current article gives the latest knowledge about the impact and need of colistin for poultry health.</p> 2018-05-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Plants Defense System Resist against the Pathogen Attack: Transcription Factors in Focus 2018-07-08T15:38:17+00:00 Mahpara Fatima Safdar Abbas Zaheer Ahmad Yasir Sharif Muhammad Umair Khalida Bahadar Madiha Zaynab <p>Transcription factors play important roles to drive different pathways by regulating gene expression. Apart from gene expression regulation, these TFs also have vital importance in plant immune system. Both PTI and ETI mode if immunity is important for plants but ETI has a central role in the defense system of a plant. ETI activates the hypersensitive response in which programmed/localized cell death is involved which ranked ETI quantitatively stronger than PTI which is effective in host resistance defense mechanism. Phytohormone such as salicylic acid, jasmonate, abscisic acid and ethylene and their components interact each other either positively or negatively. Their role in plant defense response has been documented.</p> 2018-05-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##