International Journal of Molecular Microbiology <p>International Journal of Molecular Microbiology (IJMM) is a peer-reviewed, open access, international scientific journal that publishes research on all aspects of molecular microbiology.</p> PSM en-US International Journal of Molecular Microbiology Antifungal Activity of Biocontrol Agents against Corm Rot of Gladiolus grandiflorus L. Caused by Fusarium oxysporum <p style="text-align: justify;">Field experiment was conducted to analyze the prospects of two isolated bacteria <em>Bacillus subtilis</em>, <em>Pseudomonas florescence</em>, and one fungal isolate <em>Trichoderma harzianum</em> to evaluate corm rot of <em>Gladiolus grandiflorus</em> L. caused by pathogenic fungus <em>Fusarium oxysporum</em>. Experiment was arranged in RCBD with 5 replicates. Suspensions of these agents individually and in the combination of two and three were applied to the plants at the seedling stage. All treatments provide significant results against disease incidence severity in the field. These bio control agents restrain the disease in stem and rots. <em>B. subtilis</em> showed more significant result against the disease severity % and number of lesion corms<sup>-1</sup>. <em>B. subtilis</em> treatment significantly enhanced the root and shoot length of Gladiolus plant. The present experiment revealed that corm rot of <em>Gladiolus grandiflorus</em> L. can be efficiently managed by using bio controls agents.</p> Irfan Haider Hashmi Ali Aslam Taimoor Hassan Farooq Madiha Zaynab Nigarish Munir Muhammad Tayyab Karim Yar Abbasi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-15 2018-08-15 1 1 29 37 Recombinant Protein Production in Plants: Biofactories for Therapeutics <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>EDITORIAL</strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The infectious diseases are commonly caused by disease-causing microorganisms and it may lead to the death. The tool for recombinant proteins production is achieved by the advent of recombinant DNA technologies and these recombinant proteins are used as therapeutic agents to cure the infectious diseases. Many expression systems for the pharmaceuticals production have been developed through which various types of immunoglobulins, enzymes and edible vaccines are synthesized that are used as prophylactic or as therapeutics. Biopharmaceutical and edible vaccines derived from the plants have several advantages as it involves simple and convenient approach, provide high yield of proteins, have lower storage and production cost, the removal of the pathogen contamination, the less processing required, as well as the safe delivery of the oral vaccines (<a href="#_ENREF_3">Fahad <em>et al.,</em> 2015</a>). In 1989, immunoglobulins derived from transgenic tobacco plant were assembled as functional antibodies (<a href="#_ENREF_5">Hiatt <em>et al.,</em> 1989</a>). Several studies confirmed that plants can be used to produce edible vaccines.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">In plants the expression of the biopharmaceutical proteins is based on both the stable and transient expression systems. Several problems are associated with nuclear transformation including gene silencing (<a href="#_ENREF_1">Chebolu and Daniell, 2009</a>), low yields, a high risk of the transgene contamination etc. The use of chloroplasts transformation for the industrial production of pharmaceutical compounds like antibodies, growth factors, cytokines, and antigens, enzymes and hormones is an alternative strategy (<a href="#_ENREF_2">Daniell <em>et al.,</em> 2009</a>; <a href="#_ENREF_7">Lössl and Waheed, 2011</a>). Thus, high-throughput methods that couple gene identification and phenotype observations are required to put potential products into the hands of plant breeders to get better varieties (<a href="#_ENREF_6">Hood and Requesens, 2012</a>; <a href="#_ENREF_8">Rech e<em>t al.,</em> 2014</a>; <a href="#_ENREF_9">Sukenik <em>et al.,</em> 2018</a>). Recent developments including optimization of environmental conditions are crucial for efficient recombinant protein production in transient expression systems (<a href="#_ENREF_4">Fujiuchi <em>et al.,</em> 2016</a>).</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Plants act as an ideal biofactroy for the synthesis of antigens which play an important role in development of diagnostic test, as well as it is important to produce vaccines that are directed against diseases with epidemic potential. The expression of vaccine linked protein in transgenic form of tobacco plants enhanced the usage of plants as biofactories (<a href="#_ENREF_5">Hiatt <em>et al.,</em> 1989</a>). Plant based vaccines can be stored at room temperature for long time in dried form. Efficiency of plant based vaccines has also shown great importance in animal models. Many reports have shown the high immunogenicity of vaccine candidates in different models of animals. Many vaccines and therapeutic compounds can be obtained from plants by many ways in green house, in the field and in cell or root cultures. Government should allocate more funds for plant based vaccines research and for further commercialization.</p> Muhammad Naeem Iqbal Asfa Ashraf ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-15 2018-08-15 1 1 38 39 The Ecological and Anthropogenic Factors Influencing the Nitrification: A review <p>This review focuses on the influence of the environmental factors and the human impact on the nitrification, specifically aerobic ammonia oxidation that is the degree limiting stage of nitrification and is mediated by ammonia oxidizing archaeal and bacteria (AOA/AOB). The understanding the primary drivers of ammonia oxidizing distribution and abundance in sediments are increasing interest around the globe. Many studies evaluated the environmental sediment of the communities’ ammonia oxidizing, but a few issues are known about sediments ammonia oxidizing. The sediment characteristics that have significant control in determining ammonia-oxidizing communities include ammonia substrates, pH, temperature, carbon, and oxygen, these environmental parameters represented reasons the AOA higher than the AOB in various sediments and numerous ecological, as they can inhabit possibility specialized that are unavailable to the AOB.</p> Amjed Ginawi Yan Yunjun ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-19 2018-06-19 1 1 1 16 Plant Defenses vs Pathogen Weapons: A Continuation of Battlefield: A Mini-review <p style="text-align: justify;">Plants and their pathogen co-evolved simultaneously and therefore survive either through symbiotic or parasitic interaction. With the human civilization and increasing population, food security and food safety are of major concern. For achieving that, plants are being modified to attain maximum yield and minimum loss. Therefore, in reaction pest and pathogens also mutate themselves to evolve new tools and weapons for feeding and infection. In this race, plants have to defend for attaining yield and reproduction. Plants are blessed with many structure which minimize entry of pathogens specially cell wall, spines and thorns. Furthermore, biochemical defense in plants is highly sophisticated with many antimicrobial compounds, which trigger whole plant system to defend. Many genes incorporated in crop plants also lead to enhance biochemical defense through elicitors- receptors interaction. On the other hand, pathogens utilized toxins, enzymes, growth regulators and polysaccharides to suppress the host defense system and breakdown the resistance barriers. So its continuous race between host and pathogen but through details study and understanding of such interaction, better management strategies can be deployed.</p> Sehrish Tariq Kamran Saleem ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-16 2018-07-16 1 1 17 22 Proteomics Approach Reveals Importance of Herbal Plants in Curing Diseases <p style="text-align: justify;">Herbalism (also herbal medicine) is a science that includes curing diseases by using plant derived compounds. Herbal medicine has important role in curing many diseases and it has very long history worldwide. Compared to single constituent dosage medicines, herbal medicines exhibit combined therapeutic action and can increase the risk of cytotoxicity caused by chemotherapeutic treatments. Proteomic techniques have been applied to study the physiology of medicinal plants and their effects on animals to understand the mechanism involved in pharmacological nature of plants. This review focus on the present status of proteomic research on medicinal plants and covers metabolic pathways involved in synthesis of bioactive compounds; pharmacological studies; and proteomics application to indigenous plants in disease curing. Pool of proteomic knowledge in a biological and medicinal context can boost the effective use of medicinal plants.</p> Madiha Zaynab Mahpara Fatima Safdar Abbas Yasir Sharif Khansa Jamil Almas Ashraf Mehtab Muhammad Aslam Ammarah Shabbir Wajiha Batool ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-14 2018-08-14 1 1 23 28