PSM Biological Research <p style="text-align: justify;">PSM Biological Research (ISSN; 2517-9586) is a peer-reviewed, open access, multidisciplinary,&nbsp; international journal that publishes research on all aspects of biology and allied sciences.</p> PSM en-US PSM Biological Research 2517-9586 <p><strong>Originality of the Work</strong></p> <p>I (corresponding author) certify that I have participated sufficiently in the conception and design of this work and the analysis of the data (wherever applicable), as well as the writing of the manuscript, to take public responsibility for it. I believe the manuscript represents valid work. I have reviewed the final version of the manuscript and approve it for publication. Neither has the manuscript nor one with substantially similar content under my authorship been published nor is being considered for publication elsewhere, except as described in an attachment. Furthermore I attest that I shall produce the data upon which the manuscript is based for examination by the editors or their assignees, if requested.</p> <p><strong>Relevant Permissions</strong></p> <ul> <li>I/we* have obtained permission for and acknowledged the source of excerpts from other copyright works. The publisher (PSM Publishers) will not be responsible for any violation of copyrights.</li> <li>The article contains no statements that are libelous, unlawful or in any other way actionable.</li> <li>All necessary approvals from institutional ethical and regulatory bodies have been obtained.</li> </ul> <p><strong>Conflict of Interest</strong></p> <p>All major sources of funding or other support have been acknowledged and no conflict of interest is known to exist that could prejudice the article’s impartiality, or that any known potential conflict of interest has been fully declared.</p> <p><strong>Copyrights Transfer</strong></p> <p>I/we/the body of which I am the authorized signatory*, contract transferring the copyright of the article to Pakistan Science Mission, Editorial of PSM Publishers with reserving the following rights:</p> <ul> <li>All rights other than copyright, such as patent rights.</li> <li>The right to use all or part of this article in future works of their own, such as reports, lectures, lecture notes, textbooks, reprint books and electronic publication without any payment.</li> <li>The right to make copies of this article for his/her own use, but not for sale.</li> </ul> Inter-Ethnic and Demic-Group Variations in Craniofacial Anthropometry: A Review <p>Craniofacial anthropometry plays an important role in facial structure. This review paper evaluates existing research surrounding population norms of studied facial parameters. The purpose is two-fold: (1) to determine variations in facial measurements due to demi-group or ethnic variations based on traditional (direct) caliper based and image based (indirect) anthropometric methods. (2) to compare where possible, measured facial parameters between referenced studies. Inter and intra-population variations in addition to sexual dimorphism of facial parameters such as the nose and eyes, singularly or in combination with one another, have been concluded. Ocular measurements have exhibited ethnic variations between males and females of the Saudi, Turkish, Egyptian and Iranian group. Moreover, demic variations are reported when the native language has been used a key criterion. It has been concluded that with the current state of migration and inter-demic marriages, the study of homogenous populations will prove difficult. Subsequently, this will result in ambiguous physical traits that are not representative for any one demic or ethnic population. In this paper, results for the following adult male and female populations have been discussed: African American, Azerbaijani, Caribbean, Chinese, Croatian, Egyptian, Italian, Iranian, Turkish, Saudi Arabian, Syrian and South African. The qualitative research presented serves as a knowledge base for learners and strikes up thought provoking concepts about the direction anthropometrical research is heading.</p> Shelina Khalid Jilani Hassan Ugail Andrew Logan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-20 2018-10-20 4 1 6 16 Finite Element Analysis of Phosphate Movement through a Clayey-Sandy Soil by using Geo-Slope Software (CTRAN/W) <p style="text-align: justify;">A hypothetical 2-D numerical model of a clayey-sandy soil profile had been developed by using Geo-Slope software to analyze the water flow (SEEP/W) and phosphate movement (CTRAN/W) through the sub-surface region of the soil. Results showed that streamlines and equipotential lines are normal to each other and vectors displaying the velocity of the flow direction have the average flow rate of 1.2067 x 10<sup>-5</sup> ft<sup>3</sup>/sec/ft (0.000342 LPS). The Advection-Dispersion Analysis revealed that the adsorption of phosphate on the soil particles is linearly related to the concentration which was represented as contours with different colors. The phosphate concentration after 365 days was 0.93 gm/ft<sup>3</sup> at the toe point of the drain. The overall average velocity for the selected nodal points at head, middle and tail sections were 0.2262, 0.3997, and 0.6834 ft/day, respectively. Only the nodal points present at the tail section reached the free exit drain in between 300-365 days with an average velocity of 0.6855 ft/day. The particles present at the head and middle sections of the land were moving slowly as compared to the tail section. However, results may vary for the other types and texture of soils.</p> Imran Arshad Clea Anne E. Vallejera Zaheer Ahmed Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-05 2018-12-05 4 1 20 28 Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Plants’ Improvement- A Mini-Review <p style="text-align: justify;">The soil is a rich compendium of diverse organisms which have multifaceted roles in the ecological dynamics. The diversity and functional activity of the soil-borne organisms depend on the soil structure and the types of nutrients available there. From the perspectives of plants growth and development, these organisms may be beneficial, harmful or neutral. Among the organisms, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) constitute a significant and ecologically important portion which directly or indirectly corresponds to the growth improvement of plants. PGPR are of diverse types. Some of these bacteria are found in symbiotic association with hosts while others remain free living. They are efficiently involved in nitrogen fixation, phosphate, and iron solubilization, mitigation of heavy metals and other pollutants, antagonism with phytopathogens, and the production of growth promoting molecules. The net consequences of PGPR activities are growth stimulation of plants. Here we review the importance of PGPR and their role in growth improvement of cultivated crops.</p> Saira Siyar Naila Inayat Fida Hussain ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-20 2018-10-20 4 1 1 5 White Matter: Structural and Functional Roles in Health and Disease <p>This article reviewed the literature regarding structural and functional roles of white matter in health and disease. It was found that white matter has a structure consisting of bundles that work to connect areas of gray matter in the brain. These bundles also transmit nerve impulses between neurons. Myelin, the outer coating envelop acts as an insulator and permits the jumping of electrical signals instead of passing through the axon. From a functional point of view, white matter carries the messages among various areas of gray matter through the central nervous system. The white matter is called white due to the presence of the fatty material (myelin) that makes the outer layer of axons, and accelerates the transmission of nerve signals. We showed the impacts of alcohol use and other diseases such as Alzheimer disease on white matter. Taken together, white matter has central roles in health and disease.</p> Ahed Jumah Khatib ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-05 2018-12-05 4 1 17 19