PSM Biological Research 2018-12-05T11:47:22+00:00 PSM Biological Research Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;">PSM Biological Research (ISSN; 2517-9586) is a peer-reviewed, open access, multidisciplinary,&nbsp; international journal that publishes research on all aspects of biology and allied sciences.</p> Inter-Ethnic and Demic-Group Variations in Craniofacial Anthropometry: A Review 2018-10-19T21:47:57+00:00 Shelina Khalid Jilani Hassan Ugail Andrew Logan <p>Craniofacial anthropometry plays an important role in facial structure. This review paper evaluates existing research surrounding population norms of studied facial parameters. The purpose is two-fold: (1) to determine variations in facial measurements due to demi-group or ethnic variations based on traditional (direct) caliper based and image based (indirect) anthropometric methods. (2) to compare where possible, measured facial parameters between referenced studies. Inter and intra-population variations in addition to sexual dimorphism of facial parameters such as the nose and eyes, singularly or in combination with one another, have been concluded. Ocular measurements have exhibited ethnic variations between males and females of the Saudi, Turkish, Egyptian and Iranian group. Moreover, demic variations are reported when the native language has been used a key criterion. It has been concluded that with the current state of migration and inter-demic marriages, the study of homogenous populations will prove difficult. Subsequently, this will result in ambiguous physical traits that are not representative for any one demic or ethnic population. In this paper, results for the following adult male and female populations have been discussed: African American, Azerbaijani, Caribbean, Chinese, Croatian, Egyptian, Italian, Iranian, Turkish, Saudi Arabian, Syrian and South African. The qualitative research presented serves as a knowledge base for learners and strikes up thought provoking concepts about the direction anthropometrical research is heading.</p> 2018-10-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Finite Element Analysis of Phosphate Movement through a Clayey-Sandy Soil by using Geo-Slope Software (CTRAN/W) 2018-12-05T11:47:22+00:00 Imran Arshad Clea Anne E. Vallejera Zaheer Ahmed Khan <p style="text-align: justify;">A hypothetical 2-D numerical model of a clayey-sandy soil profile had been developed by using Geo-Slope software to analyze the water flow (SEEP/W) and phosphate movement (CTRAN/W) through the sub-surface region of the soil. Results showed that streamlines and equipotential lines are normal to each other and vectors displaying the velocity of the flow direction have the average flow rate of 1.2067 x 10<sup>-5</sup> ft<sup>3</sup>/sec/ft (0.000342 LPS). The Advection-Dispersion Analysis revealed that the adsorption of phosphate on the soil particles is linearly related to the concentration which was represented as contours with different colors. The phosphate concentration after 365 days was 0.93 gm/ft<sup>3</sup> at the toe point of the drain. The overall average velocity for the selected nodal points at head, middle and tail sections were 0.2262, 0.3997, and 0.6834 ft/day, respectively. Only the nodal points present at the tail section reached the free exit drain in between 300-365 days with an average velocity of 0.6855 ft/day. The particles present at the head and middle sections of the land were moving slowly as compared to the tail section. However, results may vary for the other types and texture of soils.</p> 2018-12-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Plants’ Improvement- A Mini-Review 2018-10-28T01:09:36+00:00 Saira Siyar Naila Inayat Fida Hussain <p style="text-align: justify;">The soil is a rich compendium of diverse organisms which have multifaceted roles in the ecological dynamics. The diversity and functional activity of the soil-borne organisms depend on the soil structure and the types of nutrients available there. From the perspectives of plants growth and development, these organisms may be beneficial, harmful or neutral. Among the organisms, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) constitute a significant and ecologically important portion which directly or indirectly corresponds to the growth improvement of plants. PGPR are of diverse types. Some of these bacteria are found in symbiotic association with hosts while others remain free living. They are efficiently involved in nitrogen fixation, phosphate, and iron solubilization, mitigation of heavy metals and other pollutants, antagonism with phytopathogens, and the production of growth promoting molecules. The net consequences of PGPR activities are growth stimulation of plants. Here we review the importance of PGPR and their role in growth improvement of cultivated crops.</p> 2018-10-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## White Matter: Structural and Functional Roles in Health and Disease 2018-12-05T10:50:11+00:00 Ahed Jumah Khatib <p>This article reviewed the literature regarding structural and functional roles of white matter in health and disease. It was found that white matter has a structure consisting of bundles that work to connect areas of gray matter in the brain. These bundles also transmit nerve impulses between neurons. Myelin, the outer coating envelop acts as an insulator and permits the jumping of electrical signals instead of passing through the axon. From a functional point of view, white matter carries the messages among various areas of gray matter through the central nervous system. The white matter is called white due to the presence of the fatty material (myelin) that makes the outer layer of axons, and accelerates the transmission of nerve signals. We showed the impacts of alcohol use and other diseases such as Alzheimer disease on white matter. Taken together, white matter has central roles in health and disease.</p> 2018-12-05T10:50:11+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##