http://www.journals.psmpublishers.org/index.php/biolres/issue/feed PSM Biological Research 2018-10-28T01:09:37+00:00 PSM Biological Research biolres@psmpublishers.org Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;">PSM Biological Research (ISSN; 2517-9586) is a peer-reviewed, open access, multidisciplinary,&nbsp; international journal that publishes research on all aspects of biology and allied sciences.</p> http://www.journals.psmpublishers.org/index.php/biolres/article/view/225 Inter-Ethnic and Demic-Group Variations in Craniofacial Anthropometry: A Review 2018-10-19T21:47:57+00:00 Shelina Khalid Jilani S.Jilani@bradford.ac.uk Hassan Ugail H.Ugail@bradford.ac.uk Andrew Logan A.Logan@bradford.ac.uk <p>Craniofacial anthropometry plays an important role in facial structure. This review paper evaluates existing research surrounding population norms of studied facial parameters. The purpose is two-fold: (1) to determine variations in facial measurements due to demi-group or ethnic variations based on traditional (direct) caliper based and image based (indirect) anthropometric methods. (2) to compare where possible, measured facial parameters between referenced studies. Inter and intra-population variations in addition to sexual dimorphism of facial parameters such as the nose and eyes, singularly or in combination with one another, have been concluded. Ocular measurements have exhibited ethnic variations between males and females of the Saudi, Turkish, Egyptian and Iranian group. Moreover, demic variations are reported when the native language has been used a key criterion. It has been concluded that with the current state of migration and inter-demic marriages, the study of homogenous populations will prove difficult. Subsequently, this will result in ambiguous physical traits that are not representative for any one demic or ethnic population. In this paper, results for the following adult male and female populations have been discussed: African American, Azerbaijani, Caribbean, Chinese, Croatian, Egyptian, Italian, Iranian, Turkish, Saudi Arabian, Syrian and South African. The qualitative research presented serves as a knowledge base for learners and strikes up thought provoking concepts about the direction anthropometrical research is heading.</p> 2018-10-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://www.journals.psmpublishers.org/index.php/biolres/article/view/214 Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Plants’ Improvement- A Mini-Review 2018-10-28T01:09:36+00:00 Saira Siyar ssiyarbotany@gmail.com Naila Inayat ssiyarbotany@gmail.com Fida Hussain ssiyarbotany@gmail.com <p style="text-align: justify;">The soil is a rich compendium of diverse organisms which have multifaceted roles in the ecological dynamics. The diversity and functional activity of the soil-borne organisms depend on the soil structure and the types of nutrients available there. From the perspectives of plants growth and development, these organisms may be beneficial, harmful or neutral. Among the organisms, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) constitute a significant and ecologically important portion which directly or indirectly corresponds to the growth improvement of plants. PGPR are of diverse types. Some of these bacteria are found in symbiotic association with hosts while others remain free living. They are efficiently involved in nitrogen fixation, phosphate, and iron solubilization, mitigation of heavy metals and other pollutants, antagonism with phytopathogens, and the production of growth promoting molecules. The net consequences of PGPR activities are growth stimulation of plants. Here we review the importance of PGPR and their role in growth improvement of cultivated crops.</p> 2018-10-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##